Referencing is a key aspect of good academic practice. By learning how to reference, you will:
This guide explains how to present references in your assignments.
Referencing styles are the rules for how you should present references in assignments and reference lists.
Newman uses 3 different referencing styles:
This guide explains how to use the Newman Harvard style of referencing. If you don’t know which style to use, or if you need help with APA 6th edition or OSCOLA referencing, ask your Module Leader.
If the modules you are studying involve working with children, young people or families, or in schools, education or health and social care settings, this may have an impact on the way you reference some sources.
You will find details of how to cite people and sources anonymously, and the use of code names for ethical purposes, in the guide and examples for in-text citations and reference lists.
Please read these guidelines carefully to make sure you are complying with Newman University's Code of Ethics.
If you do an online search for ‘Harvard referencing’, you’ll get a huge amount of hits for sites that say they will show you how to use the Harvard system, or even claim to format your references for you.
We strongly recommend caution in using these tools! – ‘Harvard referencing’ is not a single, universal system. The references that these tools will produce may not be the same as Newman Harvard, which means that they’ll create more work and problems for you instead of helping you.
The sources of information that you’ve used to help you research and write your assignment. Sources can include books and newspapers, online articles and webpages, pictures, videos and many other things. It also includes work that you have previously written and submitted for marking.
Referring to a source in your assignment.
The shortened details of a source that you give within the text of your assignment. A citation links to the full reference that you give at the end of your assignment.
The full details of a source that you’ve cited in your assignment. It tells you where and how you can access the sources. If you’ve given an in-text citation for a source, you must also give its full details in your reference list. A reference list should contain details of everything that you’ve cited in your assignment, in alphabetical order by author.
A bibliography contains the same details as a reference list, but in addition lists any other sources that you’ve read but not cited in your work. It can show your lecturers the range of reading that has helped you to make your argument.
At Newman, you usually only need to include a reference list. However, lecturers sometimes use the terms ‘reference list’ and ‘bibliography’ interchangeably. If you’re not sure which one is expected of you, ask your Module Leader.
Using words or sentences from a source in your own work without changing them.
Putting words and ideas from a source you’re using into your own words. Paraphrasing is an important way that you can show your lecturers you have understood what you have read.
Giving a brief description of what a particular source or part of a source is about.
You can get help with these skills from the Learning Development Tutors in Student Support.
This guide and referencing examples show you how to reference most of the sources you’re likely to use in your work.
If there isn’t an example that fits what you’re trying to use, try 3 things:
You can ask Academic Service Librarians for advice on referencing by:
If a particular reference is causing you trouble, your Module Leader should be able to tell you how they would like you to present it.
Our referencing style is based on the principles in Cite them right by Richard Pears and Graham Shields. This book is available from the Library, or you can buy a copy. The details are:
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2019) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 11th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 9781352005134.