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Referencing at Newman: Reference lists: guide and examples

Referencing - introduction, in-text citations, reference list examples, RefWorks and how you can get more help

Using Newman Harvard referencing in your work

Your tutors will be expecting to see in-text citations and full references in your assignments. Don’t forget, every in-text citation must also be fully referenced in your reference list at the end of your assignment.

Presenting your full reference lists

Anyone reading your reference list must be able to find all of the sources that you have cited in your in-text citations if they want to, so it’s important to give full details for every source.

A reference list entry should contain:

  • the last names and initials of all of the authors or editors of a source
  • the year of publication
  • the full title of the source
  • details of where the source can be found or where it was published

Reference lists have punctuation rules that are very different to how you normally write. Use the following guide and referencing examples to help you present your references correctly.

Put all the entries in your reference list in alphabetical order by the first authors’ surnames. Every entry in your reference list must end with a full stop.

List all the names of the authors or editors in the same order as they appear on the source.

Do not mix named people and organisations (e.g. Laws, D. and Department for Education) – use organisation names only if there are no individual people’s names given.

Write names in this format:

  • [Last Name]
  • [comma]
  • [Initial(s)]
  • [full stop]

Lists of names should be separated by commas, with the last name on this list preceded by ‘and’. If the people named are editors, not authors, write (ed.) or (eds.) after their names.

Do not mix authors and editors. If both are listed, use authors.

Examples

Webber, S.

Krauss, L. M. and Cox, B.

Nye, E., Gardner, F., Hansford, L., Edwards, V., Hayes, R. and Ford, T.

Pollard, A. (ed.)

Glister, J. and Lee, J. (eds.)

 

This should be in round brackets and comes straight after the authors’ or editors’ names. Do not put a full-stop after the date.

Example

(2016)

Always write the title in ‘sentence case’. This means that you only use capital letters for the first word of the title and for any proper nouns (names of things that are usually capitalised, e.g. ‘Elizabeth’ or ‘London’).

Follow this rule even if the source you’re using does not.

Depending on what sort of source you have used, you will need to either write the title in italics (slanted text) or put it into single quotation marks. The referencing examples will tell you which you should use.

Example: title of a book

Pride and prejudice

Example: title of a journal article

'The Darcy effect: regional tourism and costume drama'

The details you put into this section depend on the type of source you’re using.

Examples

  • for a book you need to say what edition you used (unless it’s the first or only edition) and the name and location of the publisher

    8th edn. London: Routledge.

    Revised edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • for a journal article you need to state the name of the journal, the volume and issue number and the range of the pages the article covers

    British Journal of Criminology, 59 (4), pp.1035-1053.

    Business, Education and Technology Journal, 2001 (Fall), pp.6-21.

  • for an online source you need to state its web address (URL) and the date when you accessed it

    Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-48760522 (Accessed 14 July 2019).

  • if an online source has a DOI (‘digital object identifier’) you can use this instead of a URL and then you don't need to put when you accessed it.

    DOI: 10.1787/9789264305847-en.

     

The referencing examples will tell you what details to use for each type of source. If you can’t find an example for the type of source you’re using, use the ‘Where to get further help’ section of this guide for more options.

For courses involving placements or professional experiences, or if you carry out research in these areas, it’s unethical to name people or organisations directly. You should change the names of people and organisations to code names.

Examples

In your research, you used Midtown High School’s Behaviour management policy and Uptown Grammar School’s Pupil code of conduct. In your assignment you might change the name ‘Midtown High School’ to ‘Secondary School A’ and ‘Uptown Grammar School’ to ‘Secondary School B’.

An in-text reference may look like this:

Strategies include working with pupils to create "personalised positive behaviour plans" (Secondary school A, 2015a)...

In an interview, a teacher from Midtown High School says something of interest. You might change the name of the teacher to ‘Teacher A1’ to show that they were from Midtown High School. A teacher from Uptown Grammar School might therefore become ‘Teacher B1’.

Use the code names in all your in-text citations and in your full reference list.

In your reference list entry, you must also remove anything from the publication details that might identify organisations or people – even if this means that you have to leave out parts of the full reference that you would normally include (for example, the URL of the source).

Example

Secondary school A (2017) Behaviour management policy.

Rather than

Secondary school A (2017) Behaviour management policy. Available at http://www.uptown.sch.uk/upload/docs/behaviour-management.pdf (Accessed: 23 May 2019).

You will find details on how to set out secondary references in the In-text citations: guidance and examples tab, under the heading 'Citing a source that is cited in another source (secondary referencing)'.

Your reference list should only contain the details of sources that you have actually read.

Example

If you used the following in-text citation in your essay:

(Scriven, 1991, cited in Hattie, 2012, p.143)

you would only put the Hattie source in your reference list, as you did not read the source by Scriven.

Hattie, J. (2012) Visible learning for teachers: maximizing impact on learning. Abingdon: Routledge.

Anyone who is reading your work and who wants to find the Scriven source can consult Hattie to find the reference for it.

Frequently used sources

You reference books and e-books in the same way unless the e-book has been downloaded to an e-reader (Kindle, Kobo, etc.)

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • [full-stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition of the book.

Examples

Book with one author

Bell, J. (2018) Doing your research project. 7th edn. London: Open University Press.

Book with more than one author

Cross, A., Borthwick, A., Beswick, K., Board, J. and Chippindall, J. (2016) Curious learners in primary maths, science, computing and DT. London: SAGE.

Don't use et al. in your full references: write all the authors out in full. Remember your reference list is not included in your word count.

  • Author(s) of chapter or section [Last name, Initials.]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of chapter or section' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • in Editor(s) names [Last name, Initials] (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Title of whole book (in italics)
  • [full-stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [comma]
  • pp. [page range of chapter or section]
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition of the book.

Example

Allen, R. (2017) ‘Drawing as a language in the early years’, in Miller, L., Drury, R. and Campbell, R. (eds.) Exploring early years education and care. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 40-51.

Print or online journal articles with volume and issue numbers

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of article' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • Name of Journal (in italics and Title Case)
  • [comma]
  • Volume number or name (if available)
  • (Issue number or name) (in round brackets) (if available)
  • [comma]
  • pp. [page range]
  • [full stop]

Some journals do not split volumes into issues, and some don't use volume numbers at all. Just use the details that are available in your reference.

Example

Schindler, S. (2008) 'Model, theory, and evidence in the discovery of the DNA structure', The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 59(4), pp. 619-658.

 

Online journal articles with a DOI

A DOI ('Digital Object Identifier') is a permanent reference for an online document. If the article you are referencing has a DOI, use this instead of volume/issue and page numbers.

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of article' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • Name of Journal (in italics and Title Case)
  • [comma]
  • DOI: [number]
  • [full stop]

Example

Courtney, S. J. (2014) 'Post-panopticism and school inspection in England', British Journal of Education, DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2014.965806.

When you use a DOI, don't state the date you accessed the document.

For an online news article, use the following:

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of article' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • Title of newspaper or online news source (in italics)
  • [comma]
  • Day and month
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Butler, S. (2019) 'Philip Green could close overseas stores as part of Arcadia rescue', The Observer, 19 May. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2019/may/19/philip-green-overseas-stores-arcadia-rescue (Accessed: 14 August 2019).

For an article from a print newspaper, replace the online publication details with:

  • Day and month
  • [comma]
  • p. [page number]
  • [full stop]

Example

Bayes, H. (2015) 'Can theatre break down social barriers about mental health?', The Stage, 21 May, p.6.

Use this example to reference webpages, unless your source is

  • an online news article
  • a blog or vlog post
  • a social media post

For these, use the separate examples in this guide.

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials] OR Organisation name
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of webpage (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

You can usually find the title of a webpage on the browser or tab heading.

Examples

Named author

Doyle, A. (2019) Behavioural based job interview questions. Available at: https://www.thebalancecareers.com/behavioral-job-interview-questions-2059620 (Accessed: 14 August 2019).

Organisation as author

Woodland Trust (no date) Threats to woodland. Available at: https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/about-us/woodland-protection/threats-to-woodland/ (Accessed: 14 August 2019).

You can use this guidance to reference most documents published online as PDFs by organisations, and for printed reports and short documents.

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials.] OR Organisation name
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of source (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Fairtrade Foundation (2017) Brexit: let’s change trade for good. Available at: https://www.fairtrade.org.uk/~/media/FairtradeUK/Get%20Involved/Documents/APPG/FairtradeFoundation-Brexit-LetsChangeTradeForGood.pdf (Accessed: 3 July 2018).

If you are referencing a printed document, replace the online publication details with the following:

  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

Example

Lemos, G. (2005) The search for tolerance: challenging and changing racist attitudes and behaviour among young people. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Use this guidance when you need to reference sources provided to you as part of your studies, either in person or uploaded to Moodle. This includes lectures, presentations, handouts and other materials created by lecturers and other students.

Do not use this guidance to reference text extracts or scans from books or journal articles or other published sources. Use the appropriate guidance for the type of source instead.

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials.]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of source' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [Medium] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Module code and title (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Newman University
  • [full stop]
  • Day and month (if appropriate)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL] (if required)
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets) (if required)
  • [full stop]

If the source is not available online, replace the online publication details with the word 'Unpublished'. Remember to end your reference with a full stop.

Example

Chen, L. (2019) 'Apiary construction: part 1' [Lecture]. BKU401: Introduction to Beekeeping. Newman University. 16 October. Available at: https://moodle3.newman.ac.uk/19-20/mod/page/view.php?id=9999 (Accessed: 22 October 2019).

Springer, P. (2017) '5 key readings on recreation and social policy' [Handout]. PEU663: Recreation and Society. Newman University. Unpublished.

Written sources (online or print) A-Z

  • Title of Act [Year] (in italics)
  • [comma]
  • c. [Chapter number] (if relevant)
  • County/jurisdiction (required only if you have references to laws from more than one country)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Use in in-text citation

Use the full title of the Act of Parliament in your in-text citation, and add a section number when you quote or paraphrase a specific part.

Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panels are responsible for "serious child safeguarding cases in England which raise issues that are complex or of national importance" (Children and Social Work Act 2017, s.13).

Use in reference list

Children and Social Work Act 2017, c. 16. Available at: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2017/16/contents (Accessed: 17 March 2020).

  • Editor/compiler [Last name, Initials] (ed.) or (eds.)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of anthology (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition of the book.

Example

Wu, D. (ed.) (2012) Romanticism: an anthology. 2nd edn. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.

  • Author(s) or editor(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Narrated by [First name, Last name] (if available)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Downloaded: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Rowling, J.K. (2015) Harry Potter and the chamber of secrets. Narrated by Stephen Fry. Available at: http://www.audible.co.uk (Downloaded: 19 June 2018).

Bills are draft laws discussed and debated in Parliament. If they become law, you must use the referencing guidance for ‘Acts of Parliament’ instead.

Bills can be published by either the House of Commons or House of Lords.

  • Title of Bill (in italics and Title Case)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Parliament
  • [colon]
  • House of [Commons or Lords]
  • [full stop]
  • Bill no. [Number]
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Anonymity (Arrested Persons) Bill (2017) Parliament: House of Lords. Bill no. 30. Available at: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/lbill/2017-2019/0030/lbill_2017-20190030_en_1.htm (Accessed: 21 August 2019).

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of message' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • Title of internet site (in italics)
  • [comma]
  • Day and month of message
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Webber, S. (2010) 'Assigning inquiry: how handouts for research assignments guide today's college students', Information literacy weblog, 20 July. Available at: http://information-literacy.blogspot.com/ (Accessed: 21 July 2010).

E-readers often don’t use page numbers. Use the information your e-reader gives you (for example 'loc' (location) or percentage).

  • Author(s) (Last name, Initials)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn.]
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Downloaded: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

Using 'loc' in an in-text citation

Emma’s attempt at matchmaking often backfires (Austen, 1815, loc 85).

Reference list entry

Austen, J. (1815) Emma. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Downloaded: 29 July 2018).

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • Translated by [First name or Initials Last name]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition.

Translators' names are written differently to the usual way you write names in references.

Example

Schweitzer, A. (1911) J.S.Bach. Translated by Ernest Newman. New York: Dover Publications.

Chekhov, A. (1978) The cherry orchard. Translated by M. Frayn. London: Metheuen Student Editions.

Older texts, such as classic plays and novels and important scientific or philosophical works, are often reprinted in new editions.

You should add the details of the editor to your references because

  • the editor may have made important contributions to the work and should be credited
  • it will be easier for the person reading your work to find the exact edition you used.
  •  

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • Edited by [First name or Initials Last name]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition.

Editors' names are written differently to the usual way you write names in references.

Example

Mill, J. S. (1982) On liberty. Edited by G. Himmelfarb. London: Penguin.

When referencing an edited book, use the publication date of the edition you are using, not the publication date of the original.

Only follow this guidance if you wish to reference the actual code of a program or application.

If you want to reference the content of a program or application, use the 'mobile and computer apps' example.

  • Developer name [Last name, Initials] or Organisation
  • (Year of release or update) (in round brackets)
  • Title of program/source code (in italics and Title Case)
  • (Version number) (in round brackets)
  • [program code] or [source code] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) OR (Downloaded: [date]
  • [full stop]

If the program you are referencing is a physical item (e.g. a CD-ROM), rather than online or a downloaded file, replace the online publication details with:

  • Format
  • [full stop]
  • Place of distribution
  • [colon]
  • Distributor's name
  • [full stop]

Examples

Shiny Frog Ltd. (2019) Bear (Version 1.6.15) [source code]. Available at: https://apps.apple.com/gb/app/bear/id1016366447 (Downloaded 12 August 2019).

Sega Enterprises (1987) Alex Kid in Miracle World [program code]. ROM cartridge. Tokyo: Sega Enterprises Ltd.

If no developer or organisation is listed, use the title of the app in your in-text citations and as the first part of the full reference.

  • Author(s)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of paper' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • Title of conference (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Location of conference
  • [comma]
  • Day and month
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Conole, G. (2010) 'Current challenges in learning design and pedagogical patterns research', Seventh international conference on networked learning. Denmark, 3-4 May. Available at: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fss/organisations/netlc/past/nlc2010/abstracts/Conole.html (Accessed: 22 July 2010).

If the paper is in a printed edition of the conference proceedings, you should substitute the online publication details with:

  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [comma]
  • pp. [page range]
  • [full stop]

Example

Morgan, J. I. (2013) 'Exploring the benefits of a brief health psychology intervention in the workplace', Contemporary ergonomics and human factors: proceedings of the international conference on ergonomics and human factors. Cambridge, 15-18 April. London: CRC Press, pp.441-442.

The 'special cases' section of this guide shows you how to create code names for organisations and people that must remain confidential.

  • Code name of institution
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • [full stop]

Do not add any other details.

Example

Secondary school A (2015) Behaviour management policy.

Remember to also substitute the code name into the title of the document if necessary:

Primary school B (2018) Safeguarding at primary school B.

Rules for referencing dictionaries are slightly different for online and print versions.

 

Referencing an online dictionary

  • 'Word or phrase being cited' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Name of dictionary (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Using a dictionary definition for an in-text citation

...the definition of 'hero' suggests a character should have "superhuman strength, courage or ability" ('Hero', 2014)

Reference list entry

'Hero' (2014) Oxford English dictionary. Available at: https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/86297 (Accessed 19 August 2019).

 

Referencing a printed dictionary

  • Name of dictionary (in italics)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

Example

Using a dictionary definition for an in-text citation

...the definition of 'hero' suggests a character should have "superhuman qualities" (Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1999, p.666)

Reference list entry

Concise Oxford Dictionary (1999) 10th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Author(s) [Last name, initials]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of article' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • Title of encyclopedia (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date])
  • [full stop]

Example

Kirk, G. S. (2019) 'Homer', Britannica academic. Available at: https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/Homer/106285 (Accessed: 20 August 2019).

For printed encyclopaedias, replace the online publication details with:

  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

Example

Griffin, M.D. (2003) 'Demonology', New catholic encyclopedia. 2nd edn. London: Gale.

If there is no author listed for an article, use the title of the article (in 'single quotation marks') in both in-text citations and as the first part of the reference list entry.

If the article you are referencing comes from a wiki (an online source that can be continuously and anonymously updated by many people), use the separate example in the written sources A-Z.

  • Name of government department
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of report (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Department for Education (2018) Information sharing: advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers. Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/721581/Information_sharing_advice_practitioners_safeguarding_services.pdf (Accessed: 9 July 2018).

For printed reports, replace the online publication details with:

  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

Example

Department for Education (2018) Information sharing: advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers. London: Department for Education.

These types of source are called 'ephemera', as they are short-lived and not scholarly or literary.

Ephemera often don't have all of the details that you would usually need for a reference. You should think carefully about the reasons you want to include these sources in your work.

  • Author or organisation name
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of source (in italics)
  • [Type of source and where it was found] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Date the source was found
  • [full stop]

Examples

Birmingham City Council (2016) Summer 2016 in Birmingham. [Leaflet obtained at Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery]. 4 June 2016.

If there is no author or organisation listed, use the title of the source in your in-text citation and at the start of your reference list entry.

Legal name fraud (2016) [Poster seen in Northfield, Birmingham]. 12 June 2016.

We recommend that you to talk to your Module Leader before you include ephemera in your assignment. They may suggest you include a copy of the material in an appendix to your assignment, rather than giving it a full reference.

This style is only used for referencing content in an application. Use the 'computer programming or source code' example if you need to reference the code of an app.

  • Author(s) or Developer(s) [Last name, Initials] or Organisation
  • (Year of release or update) (in round brackets)
  • Title of App (in italics and Title Case)
  • [full stop]
  • Edition (if given)
  • Version number (if given) (in round brackets)
  • [(Type of device) app] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: app store name
  • (Downloaded: [date])
  • [full stop]

Examples

Shiny Frog Ltd. (2019) Bear. Apple i-phone edition (Version 1.6.15) [Mobile app]. Available at: Apple App Store (Downloaded 12 August 2019).

If there is no developer or organisation listed, use the title of the app in your in-text citations and as the first part of the full reference.

Goodreads (2018) Apple i-phone edition. (Version 3.9.6) [Mobile app]. Available at: Apple App Store (Downloaded: 5 June 2018).

Do not use this guidance for Acts of Parliament (legislation), Bills (draft legislation), Statutory Instruments, speeches or written answers given by members in the Houses of Parliament. There are separate examples in this guide for these sources.

 

  • Parliament. House of [Commons or Lords]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of paper or report (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • (Paper number) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Parliament. House of Commons (2019) Road safety: driving while using a mobile phone: twelfth report of the Select Committee on Transport, 2017-2019. (HC2329). Available at: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmtrans/2329/2329.pdf (Accessed 21 August 2019).

Speeches in Parliament are published in Hansard, the official record of Parliamentary proceedings. Before 2014 written questions and answers can also be found in Hansard.

  • Author or Speaker [Last name, Initials (or Title for members of the House of Lords)]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • 'Subject of the debate, speech or question' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • Hansard: [series] (in italics)
  • [comma]
  • Day and month
  • [comma]
  • Volume and column or page number
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Ellison, J. (2015) 'Human fertilisation and embryology', Hansard: House of Commons debates, 3 February, 592, c.160. Available at: https://hansard.parliament.uk/commons/2015-02-03/debates/15020348000001/HumanFertilisationAndEmbryology (Accessed 21 August 2019)

 

Since 2014, Parliament has published written questions and answers in the Written questions and answers database, instead of Hansard. Use the following guidance for these sources from 2014 onwards.

  • Author [Last name, Initials (or Title for Members of the House of Lords)]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • 'Subject of the question, answer or statement' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • Parliament: written questions and written answers (in italics)
  • [comma]
  • Day and month
  • [comma]
  • Question number
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Williams, Baroness (2019) 'Immigration: written statement', Parliament: written questions and written answers, 23 July, HLWS1766. Available at: https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-statement/Lords/2019-07-23/HLWS1766/ (Accessed: 21 August 2019).

  • Author or Speaker [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Type of communication and name of person communicated with [First name, Last name]
  • [comma]
  • Day and month
  • [full stop]

Example

Slater, H. (2016) E-mail to Brian Jones, 10 January.

You must seek permission from the people involved before including personal communication in your assignment, unless it has been published.

We recommend asking your Module Leader for advice and checking the 'special cases' section in this guide for advice on how to cite sources from research anonymously.

Plays published as a single volume

Reference a play published on its own in the same way as a book. If the play is included in an anthology or collection, follow the guidance in the ‘Plays published as part of an anthology or collection’ section of this guide.

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of resource (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition of the book.

If the play has an editor or is a translation, you should add these details to the reference. See the examples 'books translated from a foreign language' and 'books with author(s) and editor(s) named' for full details.

Examples

Hare, D. (1995) Skylight. London: Faber and Faber.

Pinter, H. (1993) The caretaker. Edited by Margaret Rose. London: Faber and Faber

Sophocles (1995) Electra. Translated by George Young. Edited by Thomas Crofts. New York: Dover Publications.

 

Plays published as part of an anthology or collection

Reference a play in an anthology in the same way as a chapter from an edited book.

  • Author(s) of chapter or section [Last name, Initials.]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of play' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • in Editor(s) names [Last name, Initials] (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Title of whole book (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [comma]
  • pp. [page range of play]
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition of the book.

Examples

Bond, E. (2018) ‘Dea’, in Bond, E. Plays: 10. London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, pp.1-91.

Shakespeare, W. (2005) 'The merry wives of Windsor', in Wells, S. and Taylor, G. (eds.) The Oxford Shakespeare: the complete works. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp.511-536.

 

In-text citations using lines from a play

You must put the Act and Scene number for a play in your in-text citation as well as the page number (or line number in some plays, such as those by Shakespeare).

This means you will set out your in-text citation in the following way:

  • (
  • Author
  • [comma]
  • Year
  • [comma]
  • Act number
  • [full stop]
  • Scene number
  • [colon]
  • p.[page number] or [line number]
  • )

Examples

'I wanted to say I’m not guilty.' (Hare, 1995, 1.2: p.15).

'I am all the daughters of my father's house,' (Shakespeare, 2010, 2.4: 128).

Poems published in an anthology or collection

Reference a poem in an anthology in the same way as a chapter from an edited book.

  • Author [Last name, Initials.]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of poem' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • in Author or Editor(s) names [Last name, Initials] (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Title of anthology (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [comma]
  • pp. [page range of poem]
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition of the book.

Examples

Shelley, P.B. (1998) 'Ode to the West Wind', in Wu, D. (ed.) Romanticism: an anthology. 2nd edn. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 859-861.

Heaney, S. (1975) 'Come to the bower', in Heaney, S. North. London: Faber and Faber, p24.

 

Poems published online

Reference a poem found online in the same way as a webpage.

  • Author [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of poem (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

Spender, S. (2010) The pylons. Available at: https://www.poemhunter.com/poem/the-pylons/ (Accessed: 21 August 2019).

  • Author [Last name, Initials.] or Organisaion
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of press release (in italics)
  • [Press release] (in [square brackets])
  • [comma]
  • Day and month
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • Accessed: [date]
  • [full stop]

Example

Birmingham City Council (2019) Council moves forward with effort to rezone site of proposed Sherman Industries concrete facility [Press release], 14 May. Available at: https://www.birminghamalcitycouncil.org/2019/05/14/ (Accessed: 21 August 2019).

If the press release is a printed document, do not include any details after the day and month.

  • Author(s) (Last name, Initials) or Publishing organisaion
  • (Year of latest update) (in round brackets)
  • Title of report (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

Bureau van Dyk (2018) Virgin Atlantic company report. Available at: http://fame.bvdep.com (Accessed: 12 July 2018).

MarketLine (2015) Amazon UK Ltd. Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com (Accessed: 20 October 2015).

You reference sections or definitions from a reference book in a similar way to a chapter or section of an edited book.

  • Author(s) or Editor(s) of book
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of section or definition' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • in Title of whole book (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [comma]
  • p. [page number]
  • [full stop]

If you are using an online reference book, replace the printed publication details with:

  • Available at: [date]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Example

McLean, I. and McMillan, A. (eds.) (2009) 'Multiculturalism', in The concise Oxford dictionary of politics. Available at: http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t86.e853> (Accessed: 12 December 2011).

In-text citations for sacred texts

Set out in-text citations for sacred texts like this:

  • (
  • Name of sacred text (or book/section)
  • chapter or surah number
  • [colon]
  • verse number
  • )

Examples

"a time to kill and a time to heal" (Ecclesiastes 3: 3)

"And Moses brought Aaron and his sons, and washed them with water. (Vayikra 8: 6)

"Thy Guardian-Lord Hath not forsaken thee, Nor is He displeased. (Qu'ran 93: 2)

 

Reference list entries for sacred texts

For Theology module assignments, you do not need to provide a reference list entry. However, you must always provide an in-text citation.

For all other modules, reference lists for sacred texts should be set out as follows:

Holy Bible or Torah

  • Name of sacred text (not in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Book
  • Chapter
  • [colon]
  • verse
  • [full stop]
  • Version (for Holy Bible)
  • [full stop]
Examples

Holy Bible. Ecclesiastes 3:1-8. New International Version.

Torah. Bamidbar 1:1.

 

The Qu'ran and other sacred texts

  • Name of sacred text (not in italics)
  • Book (if applicable)
  • Chapter or Surah
  • [colon]
  • verse
  • Translated by: [First name or Initials Last name] (if applicable)
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]
Example

Qu'ran 47: 5. Translated by Tarif Khalidi. London: Penguin.

Stories published as part of an anthology or collection

Reference a short story in an anthology in the same way as a chapter from an edited book.

  • Author(s) of story [Last name, Initials.]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of story' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • in Editor(s) names [Last name, Initials] (ed.) or (eds.)
  • Title of whole book (in italics)
  • [full-stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [comma]
  • pp. [page range of story]
  • [full stop]

You don't state the edition number if it is the first or only edition of the book.

Examples

Faulkner, W. (1967) 'Pennsylvania Station’, in Faulkner, W. Uncle Willy and other stories. London: Chatto & Windus, pp.203-220.

Conan Doyle, A. (2005) 'Lot no. 249', in Luckhurst, R. (ed.) Late Victorian gothic tales. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics, pp.109-140.

 

Stories published as a single volume

Reference a short story published on their own in the same way as a book.

  • Author(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of story (in italics)
  • [full-stop]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [full stop]

If the story has an editor or is a translation, add these details to the reference. See the examples 'books translated from a foreign language' and 'books with author(s) and editor(s) named' for full details.

Example

Mansfield, K. (1920) Prelude. London: Hogarth Press.

Andersen, H.C. (2015) The tinder box. Translated by Tiina Nunnally. London: Penguin Little Black Classics.

Newman does not follow the guidance in Cite them right for social media posts.

Posts on social media sites (including Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, etc.)

Use this guidance for anything published publicly on a social media site. This can include posts to closed groups on Facebook, or locked accounts on Twitter and Instagram.

To help anyone reading your assignment, you could include screenshots of social media posts and their context in an appendix. We recommend you talk to your Module Leader if you are unsure what to do.

  • Author of post [Last name, Initials] OR [Organisation name] OR ['username']
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • [Social media platform name] (in [square brackets])
  • Day and month
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL of post]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

Blackman, M. (2019) [Twitter] 14 August. Available at: https://twitter.com/malorieblackman/status/1161558270735261696?s=20 (Accessed: 28 August 2019).

Extinction Rebellion Birmingham (2019) [Instagram] 27 August. Available at: https://www.instagram.com/p/B1rKF5anxjD/ (Accessed 28 August 2019)

'jøll' (2019) [TikTok], July. Available at: http://vm.tiktok.com/2r1s3F/ (Accessed: 28 August 2019)

 

Instant messenger services and private messages on social media sites (including WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, etc.)

Reference conversations in instant and private messenger services in the same way as personal communication.

You must seek permission from the people involved before including personal communication in your assignment, unless it has been published.

We recommend asking your Module Leader for advice and checking the ‘special cases’ section in this referencing guide for advice on how to cite sources from research anonymously. Again, you may decide to include screenshots in an appendix to your assignment.

  • Author [Last name, Initials] or ['username']
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Type of communication and name of person communicated with [First name, Last name] or ['username] or ['group name']
  • [comma]
  • Day and month
  • [full stop]

Examples

Malone, S. (2018) Facebook Messenger chat with Wai Lang, 9th May.

Kolhi, V. (2019) WhatsApp chat with 'Broadbury Neighbourhood Watch', 21 December.

'notrupertgiles' (2019) Direct message on Twitter to Andrew Lovell, 16 March.

We recommend that you check with your tutor before using any of your previous work as a source for a new assignment. Some programmes or modules will have different rules about when it is or is not appropriate to self-reference.

If you use any of your own previous work that you have published or submitted for assessment at Newman or elsewhere, you must make sure that you reference yourself. This is so you can avoid self-plagiarism.

Assessed work and assignments

  • Your name [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year submitted or published) (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of work' (in single quotation marks')
  • [full stop]
  • Assignment for [module code] [name of module]italics)
  • [comma]
  • [Course name] (in italics)
  • [comma]
  • Name of college or university
  • [full stop]
  • Unpublished assignment
  • [full stop]

Example

Giles, S. (2014) 'How do Shakespeare's heroes interrogate attitudes towards masculinity?' Assignment for AA306: Shakespeare: Text and Performance, BA (Hons) English Literature, The Open University. Unpublished assignment.

Published work

Reference any work you have had published in the appropriate way for the type of source that it is (e.g. short story, news article, etc.).

  • Author [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year of submission) (in round brackets)
  • Title of thesis or dissertation (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Degree statement
  • [full stop]
  • Degree awarding body
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL] (if viewed online)
  • (Accessed: date) (if viewed online)
  • [full stop]

Examples

Atherton, J. (2012) Rioting, dissent and the church in late eighteenth century Britain. PhD thesis. University of Leicester.

Scott, Z.A.A. (2007) The inquiring sort: ideas and learning in late eighteenth-century Birmingham. PhD thesis. University of Warwick. Available at: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.491507 (Accessed: 14 June 2014).

A wikis is a type of online source where often large groups of users, who may be anonymous, contribute to the content. This means that some information you would usually include in a reference is unavailable or not relevant.

  • 'Title of wiki article' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • (Year the source was last updated) (in round brackets)
  • Title of wiki site
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: date)
  • [full stop]

Examples

'Book of numbers' (2018) Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Numbers (Accessed: 12 July 2018).

Other sources (audio, video and multimedia) A-Z

You should only use this referencing style for original online content shared by its creator or an official distributor.

You must not reference content found on the Internet that the person who posted it did not have permission to share.

  • Creator(s) [Last name, Initials] OR Organisation name OR 'username' (in single quotation marks)
  • (Year posted) (in round brackets)
  • Title of source (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Day and month (if available)
  • [full stop]
  • Available at: [URL]
  • (Accessed: [date]) OR (Downloaded: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

'Porter Brook' (2019) No-one asked vol. 1. 2 August. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/user-325713513/mix-june-19 (Accessed: 30 August 2019).

'How to ADHD' (2019) Why people pleasing doesn't make people happy (and what to do instead). 9 May. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BanqlGZSWiI (Accessed: 30 August 2019).

Wernet, L. (2014) Spring feelings. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/farbenflut/13546763753/in/gallery-flickr-72157695356899955/ (Downloaded: 13 June 2017).

  • Author(s) of book [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • [full stop]
  • Edition [Nth edn]
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication
  • [colon]
  • Publisher
  • [comma]
  • p. [page number]
  • [comma]
  • illustration OR figure OR diagram OR table, etc.
  • [full stop]

If the item you are referencing is in a chapter of an edited book or another source, such as a journal article, use the guidance for referencing that type of source, adding the page number and description after the publication details.

Example

Wiseman, R. and Bragg, R. (2014) Optimal sport performance. London: Routledge, p. 53, table.

  • Artist [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • 'Title or caption of cartoon' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [Cartoon]
  • [full stop]
  • Name of publication (in italics)
  • [comma]
  • Day and month
  • [full stop]

Example

Pritchett, M. (2019) 'Lunatic' [Cartoon]. The Telegraph, 3 September.

Use this guidance for 'feature length' films and documentaries not made for TV. For television broadcasts use the guidance for ‘television and radio programmes’.

 

  • Title of film (in italics)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Directed by [First name Last name]
  • [Film] (in square brackets) OR [format] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Place of distribution
  • [colon]
  • Distributor's name
  • [full stop]

For films streamed from an online service (such as Netflix or Box of Broadcasts) add access details after the distributor's name:

  • Available at: [URL] OR Available on: [name of subscription service]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

Grey Gardens (1975) Directed by David and Albert Maysles [Film]. United States: Portrait Films.

Groundhog day (1993) Directed by Harold Ramis [DVD]. Los Angeles: Columbia Pictures Industries.

The birds (1963) Directed by Alfred Hitchcock [Film]. Los Angeles: Universal Pictures. Available on: Netflix UK (Accessed: 20 July 2018).

Coriolanus (2011) Directed by Ralph Fiennes [Film]. New York: TWC. Available at: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/02CB02CA?bcast=95342279 (Accessed 02 Sep 2019).

  • Artist or Composer [Last name, Initials] OR [Group name]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of performance (in italics) (for Classical music)
  • [full stop]
  • Performers (for Classical music)
  • [full stop]
  • [Venue, day and month] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]

Examples

Minogue, K. (2019) [Glastonbury Festival, 23 June].

Glass, P. (2012) Einstein on the beach. Philip Glass Ensemble conducted by Michael Riesman; choreography by Lucinda Childs. [Barbican Theatre, London, 12 May].

Albums, EPs and tracks released as singles

  • Artist or Composer [Last name, Initials] OR [Group name]
  • (Year of release) (in round brackets)
  • Title of album (in italics)
  • [format] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Performer (for Classical music)
  • [full stop]
  • Place of distribution
  • [colon]
  • Distributor's name
  • [full stop]

If you streamed or downloaded the source from an online service (such as Spotify or Apple Music), remove the [format] element and add access details after the distributor's name:

  • Available at: [URL] OR Available on: [name of subscription service]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets) OR (Downloaded: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

The Beatles (1965) Rubber soul [CD]. London: Parlophone.

Shostakovich, D. (1962) Symphony no. 7 [Vinyl]. New York Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Leonard Bernstein. New York: Columbia Masterworks.

Jepsen, C. (2019) Dedicated. Schoolboy/Insterscope Records. Available on: Spotify UK (Accessed 2 September 2019).

 

Songs or tracks from an album

  • Artist or Composer [Last name, Initials] OR [Group name]
  • (Year of release) (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of track' (in 'single quotation marks')
  • [comma]
  • Title of album (in italics)
  • [format] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Performer (for Classical music)
  • [full stop]
  • Place of distribution
  • [colon]
  • Distributor's name
  • [full stop]

If you streamed or downloaded the source from an online service (such as Spotify or Apple Music), remove the [format] element, but add access details after the distributor's name:

  • Available at: [URL] OR Available on: [name of subscription service]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets) OR (Downloaded: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

Tempest, K. (2016) 'Lionmouth door knocker', Let them eat chaos [CD]. London: Fiction Records.

Saint-Saëns, C. (2005) 'The aquarium', Carnival of the animals. London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Barry Wordsworth. London: London Symphony Orchestra. Available on: Spotify UK (Accessed: 2 September 2019).

For original digital images shared online, use the guidance for ’audio, video, or images shared online’.

You should reference the photograph only if you are talking about it as a source (for example as a work of art in itself or as a specific view). If you are referring to the subject as a separate source, you should reference the source that you are writing about (for example if you are referring to a sculpture by Hepworth that you have seen in a photograph, reference the sculpture, not the photograph).

  • Photographer [Last name, Initials] (if known)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title or subject of photograph (in italics)
  • [Photograph] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Place of publication (if known)
  • [colon]
  • Publisher (if known)
  • [full stop]

Example

Martin, P. (1907) Tram accident in Carver Street [Photograph].Winson Green: Midland History Resource Centre.

For teaching and learning content from your course, including items uploaded to Moodle, use the guidance on 'Teaching and learning resources from Newman modules'.

Use this guidance to reference the spoken content of a public lecture, seminar, presentation, etc.

  • Speaker(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of communication (in italics)
  • [medium] [in square brackets]
  • [full stop]
  • Institution (if appropriate)
  • [comma]
  • Location
  • [full stop]
  • Day and month
  • [full stop]

Examples

Extinction Rebellion Hackney (2019) NVDA training [Seminar]. Extinction Rebellion Hackney, London. 23 October.

Cannon, J. (2019) An evening with Joanna Cannon [Lecture]. Waterstones Booksellers, Birmingham. 24 October.

  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Name of channel
  • [comma]
  • Day and month of transmission
  • [full stop]

For programmes streamed from an online service (such as Netflix or Box of Broadcasts), add access details after the day and month of transmission:

  • Available at: [URL] OR Available on: [name of subscription service]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

Scotland decides: Salmond versus Darling (2014) BBC Two Television, 25 August.

Prince Albert: a Victorian hero revealed (2019) Channel 4, 24 August. Available at: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/145118BE?bcast=129988335 (Accessed: 3 Sep 2019).

What happened, Miss Simone? (2015) Available on: Netflix UK (Accessed: 15 June 2015).

  • 'Title of episode' (in single quotation marks)
  • (Year) (in round brackets)
  • Title of programme (in italics)
  • [comma]
  • Series [number] (if required)
  • [comma]
  • episode [number]
  • [full stop]
  • Name of channel
  • [comma]
  • Day and month of transmission
  • [full stop]

For programmes streamed from an online service (such as Netflix or Box of Broadcasts), add access details after the day and month of transmission:

  • Available at: [URL] OR Available on: [name of subscription service]
  • (Accessed: [date]) (in round brackets)
  • [full stop]

Examples

'Episode 5' (2001) The Office, Series 1, episode 5. BBC Two Television,13 August.

'Potato' (1986) Blackadder II, episode 3. BBC1, 23 January. Available at: https://learningonscreen.ac.uk/ondemand/index.php/prog/RT404E49?bcast=119783557 (Accessed 3 Sep 2019).

'I wasn't ready' (2013) Orange is the new black, Series 1, episode1. Available on Netflix UK (Accessed: 4 June 2014).

  • Artist(s) [Last name, Initials]
  • (Year created) (in round brackets)
  • Title or subject of work (in italics)
  • [medium of work] (in [square brackets])
  • [full stop]
  • Name of gallery or collection that contains the work (if applicable)
  • [comma]
  • Location
  • [full stop]

Examples

Bruegel the Elder, P. (1566) St. John the Baptist preaching [Oil on oak panel]. Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest.

Hepworth, B. (1970) Ancestor I [Sculpture]. University of Birmingham, Edgbaston campus, Birmingham.

Further help

This guide and referencing examples show you how to reference most of the sources you’re likely to use in your work.

If there isn’t an example that fits what you’re trying to use, try 3 things:

1. Ask an Academic Service Librarian

You can ask Academic Service Librarians for advice on referencing by:

2. Ask your Module Leader

If a particular reference is causing you trouble, your Module Leader should be able to tell you how they would like you to present it.

3. Use the book

Our referencing style is based on the principles in Cite them right by Richard Pears and Graham Shields. This book is available from the Library, or you can buy a copy. The details are:

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2019) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 11th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 9781352005134.


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